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Discussion guide

This discussion guide is designed to help in conversations with patients who would like to know more about Lp(a)—whether they have been screened or not, or simply if they have more questions.

Download the Guide provides information about what Lp(a) is, what it means for people who have elevated Lp(a), and what steps they can take to reduce their overall cardiovascular risk.


New information on helping patients with elevated Lp(a) comes out frequently.

AHA=American Heart Association; ASCVD=atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; CPT=Current Procedural Terminology; ICD-10-CM=International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification; Lp(a)=lipoprotein(a); RNA=ribonucleic acid.

References: 1. Kronenberg F, Mora S, Stroes ESG, et al. Lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis: a European Atherosclerosis Society consensus statement. Eur Heart J. 2022;43(39):3925-3946. 2. Wilson DP, Jacobson TA, Jones PH, et al. Use of lipoprotein(a) in clinical practice: A biomarker whose time has come. A scientific statement from the National Lipid Association. J Clin Lipidol. 2019;13(3):374-392. 3. Handelsman Y, Jellinger PS, Guerin CK, et al. Consensus statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology on the management of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease algorithm - 2020 Executive Summary. Endocr Pract. 2020;26(10):1196-1224. 4. Farzam K, Senthilkumaran S. Lipoprotein A. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022. Updated September 2, 2022. Accessed August 22, 2023. 5. Sosnowska B, Surma S, Banach M. Targeted treatment against lipoprotein (a): The coming breakthrough in lipid lowering therapy. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2022;15(12):1573. 6. Thanassoulis G. Screening for high lipoprotein(a). Circulation. 2019;139(12):1493-1496. 7. Virani SS, Koschinsky ML, Maher L, et al. Global think tank on the clinical considerations and management of lipoprotein(a): The top questions and answers regarding what clinicians need to know. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2022;73:32-40. 8. Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;139(25):e1082–e1143. 9. Perrot N, Verbeek R, Sandhu M, et al. Ideal cardiovascular health influences cardiovascular disease risk associated with high lipoprotein(a) levels and genotype: The EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study. Atherosclerosis. 2017;256:47-52. 10. Chakraborty A, Pang J, Chan DC, Vernalis MN. Cascade testing for elevated lipoprotein(a) in relatives of probands with familial hypercholesterolaemia and elevated lipoprotein(a). Atherosclerosis. 2022;349:219-226. 11. Engler RJM, Brede E, Villines T, Vernalis MN. Lipoprotein(a) elevation: A new diagnostic code with relevance to service members and veterans. Fed Pract. 2019;36(Suppl 7):S19-S31. 12. Quest Diagnostics. Lipoprotein(a). Accessed August 22, 2023. 13. Kohn B, Ashraf AP, Wilson DP. Should lipoprotein(a) be measured in youth? J Pediatr. 2021;228:285-289. 14. Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;240(11):e596-e646. 15. Tsimikas S. A test in context: Lipoprotein(a): Diagnosis, prognosis, controversies, and emerging therapies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(6):692-711. 16. Enas EA, Varkey B, Dharmarajan TS, et al. Lipoprotein(a): An independent, genetic, and causal factor for cardiovascular disease and acute myocardial infarction. Indian Heart J. 2019;71(2):99-112. 17. Willeit P, Kiechl S, Kronenberg F, et al. Discrimination and net reclassification of cardiovascular risk with lipoprotein(a): prospective 15-year outcomes in the Bruneck Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(9):851-860.